Byzantine Empire

"In 1204, the Crusaders seized Constantinople army. Byzantium was divided into a number of states – the Latin Empire and the Achaean Principality created on the territories captured by the Crusaders, and the Nicene, Trebizond and Epirus Empire – remained under the control of the Greeks. "(Wikipedia) It turns out that the Byzantine Empire as the state ceased to exist, but who was his successor? Successor of the Byzantine Empire became Nicaean, at least, so says the modern history. Who rules Nike in 1237? "John III Ducas Vatats – Nicene emperor in 1221-1254, respectively." (Wikipedia). Letters, denoting the sound i in the Greek language is not as sound, so the name of the Emperor in the original sounds like "Batats." If you add the title of "Caesar" or "king", it becomes even clearer. What could lead to Russia Nicene Emperor? "History of Byzantium" (Vol. 3, collection) tells us: "During the summer of 1235 and Vatats Assen (Bulgaria) took a large part of the Latins Thrace. The boundary between Bulgaria and the Western Empire became possessions of the Nicene river Mariza in its lower reaches from the mouth to nearly Didimotiki. Violent Thracian fortress was besieged by the Latins Tsurul Vatatsem. In his campaigns against the Latins in 1235 and 1236's. Allies reached the walls of Constantinople. "From there, we know in the spring of 1237 the Bulgarian tsar Assen dissolved the alliance with the Nicene emperor. That same year, Pope, under the threat of a crusade, requires adherence to the Nicene emperor of the Roman Church.

Drifting Ice On The Neva

Autumn ice on the Neva is strong enough. On the case of a very early frost Neva wrote in a letter to the mother Pavel Tretyakov – the founder of the Tretyakov Gallery – October 1852: "19 this month went to on the Neva Peter and Paul Fortress "The observation was done in two days after the Neva River rose. The latest freezing river marked on Jan. 20, 1952. The earliest opening – March 16, 1938 at the latest – May 12, 1810. In our time Neva freezes later and breaks up earlier than 100-150 years ago, because of the heat emitted by the big city. On the Neva River is two spring break-up. Breaks up the river more often in early April, when the river is ice. This is not very spectacular. A few days later the river is cleared. After a week or two warm weather gives way to cold, and the river suddenly appear big white ice floes – Ladoga moved. Lake Ladoga is revealed later Neva – that's why there are two ice flows. Ice of Lake Ladoga driven cold northeasterly winds, and they do not and ice from the lake into the Neva will not go – this happens in some years. The ice of Lake Ladoga via the Neva River can not get through. It is estimated that the river falls 1-2% of the ice. To "drive" across the river the whole Ladoga ice, it would take two years.