Rethymno is one of the most beautiful and romantic of the Greek cities. The city is located on the island of Crete and is the capital of the same name with him nome. (Nom – territorial unit of the island). The city is small, but nevertheless Rethymnon is a cultural and scientific capital of the island. Town was founded in ancient times, but to this day the ancient buildings have not survived. Rethymno Acropolis with magnificent temple of Artemis was located in the Venetian fortress, which now dominates the old part of the island. Rethymno shared the fate of the Cretan cities. In the Hellenistic period the city is often at war with its neighbors, mainly against the mighty Knossos. C the arrival of the Romans in Crete, the island is at peace and serenity that is naturally a very positive impact on Rethymnon. The city became one of the most important commercial cities on the island, enjoyed a certain degree of autonomy and even minted its own coins. After the division of the Roman Empire into eastern and western parts of Rethymnon became part of the eastern part is Byzantium. Information about the history of this period is extremely scanty. As part of the Byzantine Empire Rethymno was until 1204, while the city did not get possession of the Republic of Venice as a trophy after the fourth crusade. After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman port out into the Aegean Sea and over Crete threatened invasion by Turkish forces. The Venetians started a comprehensive program on the island for the modernization of fortifications. In Rethymnon, the program has been updated walls, as well as erected a fortress. I must say that quite inept Venetians surrendered the fortress and the town of Rethymno Turks. In 1646, when the Turkish army approached the walls of Rethymnon, the commandant of the fortress held that the defense is meaningless and preferred to surrender to the enemy. For comparison, a nearby Irakleon held more than 20 years.